How do we “bring language to life”? For what purposes?
How can young people learn of their own language and cultural identities by learning those of others?
As you listen to this warm and compassionate conversation with educator and author Parthena Draggett, I invite you to think about how to bring language to life–and life to our own linguistic and cultural identities.
After you listen, let’s continue the conversation! Share your comments here, or join me on Twitter (@NorahLulicJones) or on LinkedIn. You can also find this week’s episode on Spotify, Google Podcasts, and Apple Podcasts. Or subscribe to Fluency Online on YouTube.
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0:00:01.1 Parthena Draggett: My kids didn’t hear accents. They didn’t. I always told them, “Don’t worry about an accent. I’m gonna have an accent. I will always have an accent because I was born here. Get past that. Look at what you’re able to do with the language. Look at the communication that’s taking place. Look at the accomplishments and the people that you’re helping and these wonderful relationships that you’re establishing. That means much more than worrying about having an accent or thinking about, ‘What if I make a mistake?'” So it’s language, you’re communicating and you’re engaging.
0:00:33.3 Norah Jones: Hi, I’m Norah Jones. Welcome to It’s About Language. This podcast connects language and culture to life, learning, and hope. You’ll experience insightful conversations with creative leaders in the fields of education, business, arts, and science. My guests shed light on the impact of language and culture on individuals and society as they share their stories and experiences. You’ll be informed and inspired as we explore how language and culture make us human and bring hope in the midst of a challenging world. And so it is my great pleasure to welcome my friend Parthena Draggett to the podcast today. Hi Parthena.
0:01:19.6 Parthena Draggett: Hi Norah, how are you today?
0:01:21.1 Norah Jones: I am well, thank you, and all the better because I get a chance to talk with you. You are always so inspiring and I’m looking forward to sharing what you’ve got today for just our conversation. And I look forward to the fact that we’re taking a look at something that you feel passionate about. As a matter of fact, when folks take a look at your biography and your resources that you’ve shared on my website fluencyonline.com, they’re gonna see the word “passion” appears a lot. That’s you my friend, that is definitely you. And so you have a key question here that you sent to me. How can languages come to life for learners? And I’m changing the word to learners not because it isn’t about middle and high school and elementary and everything else but, just in general, in life. How do, indeed, languages come to life for people? Parthena, what have you seen?
0:02:14.0 Parthena Draggett: For me, Norah, languages come to life because we make them come to life for our students. We bring them to life by connecting our students outside the classroom and making sure that they get the opportunity to use language outside the classroom. And we help them explore the world and see that it isn’t just a course in school. For me, that was very important in my early teaching and I didn’t realize it. And as I went on, because I started teaching a long time ago, I noticed that my students became more engaged the more that I could show them that what they were doing mattered and counted for people in their lives.
0:02:57.6 Norah Jones: Interesting, Parthena. Counted for people in their lives. What were some of the aspects that you began to uncover that were tapping into students’ interests?
0:03:11.0 Parthena Draggett: Well, the first thing that I remember being… One of the very first things is all the trips I did with students. I used to travel a lot with them. And when I would take students to Spain or France and they could engage with the people, that was very important to them. Likewise, though, they also needed to understand the products, practices, and perspectives of people and understand how to engage and engage appropriately. That was also very important. Such as, if we were eating and ordering in a restaurant and making sure that they understood how important the role of a waiter is, for instance, in Spain, maybe, that was a career. I also think about when I had students who actually found they could help save lives by using Spanish.
0:03:58.3 Norah Jones: Interesting.
0:04:00.4 Parthena Draggett: Yeah. That came about because I had started the Sociedad Honoraria Hispánica chapter at Jackson High School back in, I don’t remember, the early 2000s sometime. My vice president at the time, a nice young man’s grandfather, happened to be the fire chief, assistant fire chief. He said to Brennan one day that they had gone to the scene of an accident and the people ran. They were scared, they didn’t understand because they didn’t speak English. So they asked if we could help and my students gave for two years on a regular basis, they gave lessons to the emergency medical team, the firefighters, on how to interact, how to say things like, “I have to examine you. I’m here to help. How is your pain?” They not only gave them lessons, they created, I guess I would say signage for inside their vehicles to help remind them how to say things. We did online audios for them, we made CDs for them, we ended up being in some kind of a magazine nationally.
0:05:09.1 Norah Jones: I bet.
0:05:11.2 Parthena Draggett: That’s just one. I have so many other stories like that including my students who worked with children who came to live in Jackson Township. And we didn’t have a great deal of Hispanics at that time. And they would come in, the kindergarten teachers would contact me immediately at the high school and say, “What do I do? I’m getting a child tomorrow that speaks no English.” Well, I would connect to one of my students. They’d go to the classroom and help. That is how our students understand that language matters. It’s not just a subject in school.
0:05:38.3 Norah Jones: That is fascinating. Now you’ve kind of given us here the idea of when you took them out, when it happened. Step for a moment into the classroom itself. How did you establish that this vision inside the learning environment was going to keep in front of students?
0:06:01.0 Parthena Draggett: That’s very interesting. I think of a few incidences or a few, I guess, programs or initiatives. One was in the 1990s, or early 1990s. I know I’m old. And that was when I went to an Ohio SchoolNet conference and our assistant superintendent had come to me and said, “I would really like your department to do something with technology.” We had no computers in our classrooms in those days and I had been struggling in my classroom to make language more meaningful to my students. Our wonderful textbooks we have today did not exist back then. Everything was so grammar translation and so dry. And I ended up coming up with a concept that I engaged one of my colleagues in when I came back, moving my students abroad virtually. I was the first classroom in the whole school to get computers for my students. Anything I wanted the school gave me and it was because our students had… I’d heard they’d formed families. It’s a long story. I used to present this a lot. It’s still in existence by the way at the school.
0:07:07.6 Norah Jones: Alright.
0:07:07.7 Parthena Draggett: But we moved abroad. They had families and they had to come up with a reason. They had to buy a house and learn about the differences in houses and the square meters instead of square feet and money conversions and register their children for school and they published their work for their parents. And their parents would sit with them and say, “Well, tell me about this,” because everything was in their target language, Spanish or French. That was a way for my students to visit the countries, in a way, if they weren’t really going with me. I always looked for ways. I’d bring people in the classroom. I had a doctor from Nicaragua who told us her whole story about how she had to reeducate when she came to the States. The students finally learned about what went on in Nicaragua because she could tell them firsthand. She used to come and volunteer in my class and do mock job interviews, talk about medicine, anything I could do to bring my students, in their classroom, to touch with language. And there were some community things as well.
0:08:11.2 Norah Jones: Well, and you keep connecting. So you you were just describing a story there where students could “live” in a foreign country even if they couldn’t travel with you or receiving the community inside. Indeed, let’s go on that for just a moment, Parthena. Tell me about how you viewed and how you helped students to understand the concept of community, language inside a community, language inside a culture.
0:08:47.5 Parthena Draggett: I think the most important thing there is for students to understand that this language that they’re learning in their classroom, and perhaps through extensions of the community, but that this language is the way that people conduct their lives every day in another community. And sometimes students don’t see that. They don’t understand that until you do. We used to take them to websites. I remember in those days we didn’t even have the easy way of searching like we do nowadays. I had to learn how to use HTML and all that but the point is that the students could actually go into some websites at the time, go look at pictures of houses, go look at recipes, look at what TV shows might be like, what shopping might be like. And many of them had never seen that before. I think making the students understand there are people who live their lives daily in a different language and culture from them mattered.
0:09:45.4 Norah Jones: And how do you see, in the current years, the impact of understanding that people are living daily lives that might be somewhat different? How do you help them to experience both the similarities and differences among cultures and develop their skill sets?
0:10:05.0 Parthena Draggett: That is so important, especially because I taught AP Spanish and I am a consultant and an author for AP Spanish. That is so important to me. We cannot just share the products, like the food, listen to the music, look at the pretty paintings in a museum. We need to really start to understand the best we can and this is where what I really work on in my class is starting in early levels. We need to understand why people see the world they do through a different set of lenses because their experiences have been different than mine or my students experiences and getting that perspective is so important. One story that comes to mind to me is… And I’ve thought about this a lot lately. I was brought up in a Greek Lebanese background. And we had Greek dancing. I even had Greek dancing in my wedding. And everybody was welcome to come jump in the line and dance always and it was so much fun to see everybody do that.
0:11:04.9 Parthena Draggett: We were in Barcelona, España one time and I had a teacher with me who was helping me who was a dancer. And they were, I believe, the… I believe the dance was called the Sardana. It’s been so long ago, it was probably 25 years ago. But she just jumped in and people were looking at her funny. Well, in their culture you just can’t jump in. The guide told me that people were bothered and that was something that we didn’t know how to behave in that culture. And I nicely told her because that dance had a lot of steps that she couldn’t just jump in and pick up. Now that may sound rude or something but not at all. We need to understand what is acceptable and what isn’t when we travel or when we… Just in my classroom, I’ve told that story to my students before. People are so welcoming and loving but we need to know when it is okay to jump in, when it is okay to stand back and learn.
0:11:58.4 Norah Jones: Indeed. Great story to share, that cultural learning as well as the linguistic learning. And you brought up about the Greek and Lebanese background, there. That’s fantastic. I know how much that… Ultimately, I didn’t think about it at first, my Croatian background informed my educational approaches and stuff. Can you give a little bit more about how your personal background made you who you are with your world language and cultural education?
0:12:31.3 Parthena Draggett: Absolutely. And again, these are things you think of later in life, not so much earlier. For me, languages were never… And I’ve never liked the word foreign. Languages were never foreign, that’s why I prefer world languages. I always heard languages spoken. I grew up in a… Like I said, I understand my background but also the neighborhood I lived in until I was in third grade was also very strongly Romanian. I heard all different languages all the time and there were a lot of Spaniards in my neighborhood. And I remember going over to all my little girlfriends’ houses and we’d play with the Castañuelas and they talked to their Abuelitas. And I never knew that later on in life I would have this huge love for Spanish and also French but I heard languages always spoken. To me, languages were just languages. I didn’t hear accents, I didn’t think of anything as foreign it was just a way people communicated. So I believe I’ve just always loved that and also the culture because I have so much rich culture around me. I love the culture of America in general because of how much there are different threads in the tapestry that reflects so many different people in the entire world coming together and I love that.
0:13:42.6 Norah Jones: Wonderful statement. And I go back, indeed, to when you said, not foreign languages to you, just languages, ability to communicate different accents, potentially. How did you help your students? How do you help? How do others help learners to understand that perspective, Parthena?
0:14:05.9 Parthena Draggett: Probably, the most important thing is by showing them that although they’re learning it in school and I want them to understand it, it also is important in careers and in what goes on all around us. That other people don’t… That people need these languages to communicate, to be more successful, to understand people, to be more of a citizen of the world. And that is why one of the other things I did while I was at Jackson is I formed a World Language Community Advisory Board, world language department community advisory board. And we had people from all walks of life on the board. And then the very first year we had what was called a global opportunities night. And we had people from all over the place that came from all walks of life that dealt with people from other languages and cultures and they shared what they were doing. So I’m thinking about, we would have somewhere between 500 and 1000 people there. And I even had to remember when I had somebody from the Defense Language Institute voluntarily came to talk about Chinese but I’m remembering an incident, or not an incident, one of the wonderful things that came out of this. Because my students would make such great connections at this, our students at Jackson.
0:15:21.3 Parthena Draggett: I had somebody, they were neighbors of ours actually, that took part in a program called Siete Sur. And it was a missionary program in Nicaragua and it was called Siete Sur because it was seven miles south of Managua. But what it was all about is they were trying to provide drinking water to people that had none. And they built wells or they were, actually, these big, I think, containers they would put in the ground. But to make a long story short, my students became engaged in that. And one of my young men, one of my students who wanted to raise money for that, we did. We donated a well and all of that ended up establishing a relationship with them. And he was going to med school and wanted to work with them because they would get volunteer doctors to go and do examinations as well. That my kids didn’t hear accents. They didn’t. I always told them, “Don’t worry about an accent. I’m gonna have an accent. I will always have an accent because I was born here. Get past that. Look at what you’re able to do with the language. Look at the communication that’s taking place. Look at the accomplishments and the people that you’re helping and these wonderful relationships that you’re establishing. That means much more than worrying about having an accent or thinking about, ‘What if I make a mistake?'” So it’s language, you’re communicating and you’re engaging.
0:16:41.5 Norah Jones: Accents can set people apart. How interesting that you made sure that students concentrated not on the accent that was easy to hear but the communication that was the message.
0:16:56.8 Parthena Draggett: Yes. And that is really… I’m so proud of the entire world languages and cultures community because we’ve gotten much better about that. Not looking at what isn’t communicated or where the little errors are but looking at what is communicated and looking at what students can do because when you look at what they can do it’s the greatest success in the world when it comes to engaging with people.
0:17:19.0 Norah Jones: Interesting. And how is that, then, flowback towards the classroom, towards instruction of learners?
0:17:29.7 Parthena Draggett: Well, it comes back towards instructions of learners because we reduce the effect of filter. We make them so comfortable. We tell them how important it is to take those risks with the language and do not be concerned about the mistakes you’re making. I have signs all over my classroom saying, if you’re not taking… If you’re not… My courses, they’re in Spanish. But if you’re not taking risks, you’re not improving. You have to make mistakes to grow. And then students realize and sometimes we would even applause, an aplauso. We would applaud a mistake because… We would applaud because somebody really tried to do something beyond his or her comfort level and was communicating. Even though there may have been some mistakes it was understood. So it is so important for us as teachers because I’ve been in this a long time. And there was a time when the poor kids were hit for every mistake they made, whether it was pronunciation or grammar or vocabulary or whatever. But if we really think about it, I don’t know if any of us speaks English correctly all the time.
0:18:31.3 Norah Jones: We don’t actually. We don’t. That’s great. Well, fantastic. Well, Parthena, one of the things that you were mentioning here, there’s a very humane and human approach to your focus. You also talked about when you were getting started with helping students to understand the world, to bring it into life, to make it bigger than the classroom, that you engaged some early technology and brought things that people hadn’t had. And it sounds like you had great support because you had great vision. What is the role now of the technologies, of the new approaches, new pathways for learners to make language seem real, bring it to life?
0:19:16.5 Parthena Draggett: Well, it’s so easy nowadays. To me it’s everywhere. I remember when I was teaching French IV and I had to connect my students. And we lived in Canton, Ohio. I lived in Canton, Ohio at that time. We had the Timken company and they had a subsidiary in Colmar, France. I found out that they had distance learning equipment at the Timken plant. I contacted them. We didn’t have anything that yet. I’m talking about 1990s, late 1990s. They were so wonderful to me. They paid for buses to come get my kids and take them down there. We had done an exchange with Colmar with videos the kids would make of their communities and their homes. And we had been doing a little exchange with them and my kids got to see them. Wow, was that something. We went down to Timken company. They helped me with everything, which, I’ve never used this technology before. They did it all. We just participated. And when my students saw these kids across the world, over in France come in they said, “Madame, they have our box.” Because we had sent them this box of things from our area. That was amazing.
0:20:26.4 Parthena Draggett: Now, I think kids can do this all the time now. They can see other people. They can take part in, they can sign up for web pals. There are just so many different ways they can engage. There are all kinds of programs out there. My inbox is full all the time with people wanting, “Would you like your students to participate in this program?” It is just so much easier. You can look at people in faraway places and engage with them through Skype through whatever. We didn’t have all that back then. But I remember my students being just amazed and now, that is at their fingertips.
0:21:02.2 Norah Jones: That’s inspiring. Wow. Thank you. Now look at the status, right now, of learning, using, thinking about languages in this country. What kinds of reflections do you have on the studies that are going on in, say, a K-12 area, the studies that go on in college, the ways that people view languages and language use in adulthood. What do you see happening right now?
0:21:32.4 Parthena Draggett: Well, I say this often in the workshops I give. There is no better time to be a world language and culture educator. I believe we have all the support and understanding. We’ve come so far. We’re very well aligned across the board starting with ACTFL, which is so important to all of us. It’s kind of our mothership, I guess I would say. You look at the common European framework, very close to that. We look at can-do statements, we look at the importance of using the target language, 90% of the time at least, hopefully 100 and upper level classes. We look at alignment, we are so much better aligned. It used to be that teachers went into their classrooms and closed the doors and taught whatever they want. We now work closely together. We look at how one level informs the next and look for strategies. I believe we have come so far. One area that I do get a little worried about is that constant hitting us in our inboxes to all these availability of this program, that program, I think there’s a little too much of that going on. Teachers need time to teach and they need time to use their creativity.
0:22:43.4 Parthena Draggett: And sometimes I think we do get some interference from outside, agencies and companies that want to jump in on all this, always advertising to us. And I’m not saying that isn’t great but we have so much available through ACTFL in our organizations, our state organizations, regional organizations. We teach or support each other our alignment. We need time to work together more than anything. That’s another thing that I think that as a curriculum director and department chair, I always try to create time for my teachers to work together. They need time to process everything going on around them and plan together and look at their strategies together. That I think could use some work. Not so much all the interference from the outside as much as teachers working together on the inside or regionally or statewide but get our, keep our philosophy and our strategies and what we know about good techniques and what helps with that articulation and focus and don’t get, I guess I’m saying, not be distracted by so many other things.
0:23:57.3 Norah Jones: You support that work to prevent distraction and to work collegially and to strategize together and to concentrate and keep focus and keep that creativity and imagination. For just a moment, let’s turn your dear spirit about bringing languages to life to those who might be in an educational setting, and I’m speaking here of the educators themselves, where they may not be receiving the kind of support from administrators above them that have this vision. How can they… What kind of resources do you believe they should tap on to bring that picture of languages in life to bear so that they have some more of that support?
0:24:49.6 Parthena Draggett: This is an interesting question, Norah, because I especially think of those schools where they’re small and where teachers are a singleton, maybe, in the school. We dealt with that in Stark County by starting a lead teacher group. And we had representatives from all the schools in the area. I think there were 18. And we would come together. Some of us had plenty of support but we supported each other that way. And we actually… Before I started the World Language Community Advisory Board… Actually it was World Languages and Cultures Community Advisory Board. We actually had a few events county-wide, Stark County-wide that we had done together as teachers. And we enjoyed that, leaning on each other from school to school. We had some huge events at the Kenton Cultural Center.
0:25:35.1 Parthena Draggett: So in that respect you can reach out to other teachers also on the ACTFL website there is a link to Lead With Languages. I think that is an amazing site you can search. I can’t remember if it’s 17 or 18 languages they actually have. You click on your language and it shows all kinds of opportunities in the language, you can listen to a little video. I try to grow teachers. I think the things I’m most proud of in life are all the people who’ve become world language teachers or even some kind of teacher. You just get an email from a student down the line. But this is a place where you can show your students some of the opportunities with languages as well. And that’s a place for teachers not just for students, it’s for teachers as well. Teachers need to go to… I really believe they need to reach outside their schools.
0:26:24.2 Parthena Draggett: It is very easy to get so busy, to just exist within the walls of your classroom or your school. But when you really get out there and you join your, if there’s a county group, your state organization, AATSP, AATF, AATG, whatever it happens to be, you’re going to get support in your area and find people that are like-minded that have the same kind of passion that you do. And don’t just look at this as “my job” but look at this as “What more can I do?”. I think that was always my mantra once. I believe that started with the National Board Certification where you had to analyze every little thing you did, always stopping and reflecting, “What more can I do? What do I need? Who can help me? How can I make sure this happens for my students?” There are foundations you can look into in your area.
0:27:14.3 Parthena Draggett: I remember when I wanted iPads for my classroom and I wrote a grant for the Jennings Scholar Foundation. They really need to maybe make connections with their county, if they have any county offices, anybody that, for education of course, that would have some resources for them. But they shouldn’t be alone. No man is an island. No teacher can accomplish anything alone. I believe our collaboration and sharing. Facebook groups. My gosh, there are a million Facebook groups out there. Look for somebody who has that same kind of heart. Look for that heart and caring for your students and looking for “What else can I do?” and you’ll find like-minded people that will gladly join in with you and tell you what they’re doing and support you.
0:27:58.8 Norah Jones: Beautifully articulated. And reaching out, that bringing language to real life for the educator as well, to not stay isolated. You have a variety of resources that you have shared with me to put on my website. Is there any other one that you would to mention? You mentioned specifically the Lead With Languages from ACTFL. Anything else that you’re like, “And don’t forget to check this out, people,” for themselves or for students?
0:28:28.3 Parthena Draggett: Absolutely. I believe that we should look for those language groups like AATSP. Whatever your language is, look for your mother organization, I guess I would say. There’s a lot of free professional development on those websites and there are scholarships for teachers. Maybe you’re a teacher who wants to improve your pronunciation you want to go study in Salamanca, Espana or Guadalajara, Mexico, there are all kinds of things out there. Also I think it’s really important for our students that we connect them that way so when you join something like AATSP for instance and you start a Sociedad Honoraria Hispanica or you start giving the national Spanish exam, you soon find out about scholarships and opportunities available for students.
0:29:14.6 Parthena Draggett: That’s the other thing, looking for opportunities for us but also for our students such as, I’m thinking of the NSLIY scholarship, I think it’s called. I gave you a link, Norah, to share with teachers. Where I’ve had students and they have programs for teachers but this particular, this is all through the US government looking at critical languages. A lot of my students went on to study another language like Russian or Arabic looking at critical languages and getting scholarships to live in other countries or study, very carefully guided by the US government which is wonderful. There are those programs in the summer for teachers and students that fall under the auspices of… Oh my goodness, it just slipped my mind. I gave you a link to it. Some are programs for teachers and students to hone their skills for both.
0:30:09.1 Norah Jones: STARTALK?
0:30:10.5 Parthena Draggett: STARTALK. Thank you very much. STARTALK grants. I’ve had many students participate in those over the years. I believe what you need to do is just do a little searching. A lot of that is available from places like AATSP or go to the STARTALK site. There is amazing support for teachers all over. There are organizations, if you just search world languages and cultures you’ll get a lot of different organizations that we may not have even thought of like the TELL project. There’s great support out there, you just have to search for a little bit. If you’re alone in your school and your school doesn’t have a lot of money for professional development because there are some scholarships available.
0:30:51.9 Norah Jones: Such good advice. And I’m really going to encourage every listener to check out the advice for the improvement of this experience in the educators’ lives and in students’ lives to look on my website. And again, thank you Parthena for all of that, all those linkages so that people can follow those. One last thing then. I’m going to turn to you and say, imagine now the folks that are listening. You turn to them and you say, “Here’s one last key piece of advice to you, one thing I want to leave with you.”
0:31:28.0 Parthena Draggett: I think that key piece of advice would be to look into your community because that’s how I found so many opportunities for my students. Look into your own community and what is around you. I had students working with children and loving it so much going to… Being excused a little bit out of our school to go to an elementary school and help a teacher teach a child. Wow. There are kids who say, “I think I want to become a teacher.” Like I said, bringing in physicians, anybody into your area, into your school to show the kids how much language matters outside of the school environment. Look to your community. The other thing I think that is really important for teachers is to make sure that you remember how important you are and the role that you have. This advice would be to stand back and reflect not just on what’s going well and what isn’t going well but on the great person you are, taking time with students, and that always looking for a better way. Never being complacent no matter how well you’re doing because it’s amazing the things that are born out of that. Or somebody contacting you, those connections that you’ve made. There are opportunities that just never cease.
0:32:42.0 Parthena Draggett: I remember I was contacted to go to Russia for a week and I thought to do professional development because I’d given a vertical alignment workshop. Things just happen and then you have that passion that you’re sharing with other people. I think that’s the most important thing. What you love doing, always share. I guess that would be my final piece of advice. If you love what you’re doing and you hopefully do, that’s the thing. The other thing I always tell my students, please find something that you love in life because you’ll never feel like you’re going to work. You’ll be chomping at the bit to get into your building, your office, your school room as I always have. But share that. Share that love and passion with others around you that need… Those people that you were talking about, Norah, who may not have somebody right with them. Look for those people to help them because together you can learn a lot and go forward.
0:33:30.1 Norah Jones: Thank you so much, Parthena. Fantastic advice, very inspiring and as always delivered with that passion that’s so much a part of you.
0:33:40.4 Parthena Draggett: Thank you, Norah. This has been a tremendous opportunity. I just love speaking with you at any time. But the chance to talk about what I love is such a great treat for me. Thank you.
0:33:54.3 Norah Jones: Well, I can tell it’s a treat but also it’s our honor and joy to listen to you, so thanks for sharing that. Again, I invite everybody to take a look at what you have also shared in those resources. But I’m especially grateful that, Parthena, today you gave not only great ideas but also lots of energy and passion to our listeners. Really appreciate it.
0:34:14.3 Parthena Draggett: You’re so welcome, Norah. Thank you.
0:34:16.7 Norah Jones: Take care, my friend.
0:34:20.2 Parthena Draggett: Thank you, you too. 0:34:21.8 Norah Jones: Thank you so much for listening to this episode. If you enjoyed it please share it with your friends, family and colleagues. Let’s continue the conversation. Be sure to check out my website fluencyonline.com to learn more about our guests and to check out the resources and information they’ve shared with us there. I have other ideas, resources and opportunities there for you too. Again, thanks so much for listening and until next time.Become a Sponsor